The education of the child according to the Montessori method
Today, many parents want to provide their child with the harmonious and comprehensive development. But to understand all the stream rushed upon us like an avalanche systems and methods is very difficult. Doman’s cards, cubes Zaitseva, Waldorf system, the Montessori method. the list is long.
So how not to get lost in all this variety?
First of all, you need to clearly understand what a particular method. And then to make an informed decision. In this article we will discuss now one of the most popular systems of education and development of the child — the Montessori method.
The author is Maria Montessori (1870-1952), an Italian educator and humanist. The most important, fundamental, and conveys the essence of the method is the motto. “Help me to do it myself” .
The great importance of Maria Montessori gave the period of development of the baby from 0 to 6 years. It is believed that during this period is the most intense development of the child, during which there are special times when the baby is particularly susceptible to any particular activity.
And if at this auspicious time with a child will not be necessary for the development of the material, then the time will be irretrievably lost. To make up for later this omission will be almost impossible. Thus was born the concept of method overriding — developing environment.
The group, which will engage kids, is a seemingly usual, a cozy game room. Here is everywhere toys and many other interesting places. But actually, this room has a strict order. Here each thing its well-marked place and nothing is random. The whole room is divided into specific areas and each of them is filled with specially designed learning materials.
Five areas of child development
1) the practical life Area
The purpose of this zone is to develop the child’s independence, which will help him in the future, everyday life and a very positive influence on self-esteem.
Pour water into the Cup, fasten buttons, peel the potatoes, to open the lock, lace up shoes. Here children learn quickly all of these practical skills. The teacher (in the framework of the method it is called a Mentor) shows children how to handle things and what they do. Next the child is asked to act for himself, by trial and error. It is very important that all items in this zone must be real and not a toy.
2) the touch Area development
Hot – cold; heavy – light; smooth – rough; long – short — these and many other concepts the child attains here empirically. Numerous of the liners, cones, pyramids, scales, objects differing in color, texture, sound, smell and so on. The materials in this zone fully engages all the senses of the baby. sight, hearing, smell and tactile sensations.
3) the Area of language development
In this area, dedicated to language development, preparation for reading and writing, great attention is paid to the development of fine motor skills, which is directly related to the psychomotor development of the child and development of the speech areas of the cerebral cortex. That’s why many benefits of this zone is aimed at massage of fingers, development of precise hand movements. Here is rough and letters, and lacing, and the movable alphabet, and letter-ear.
4) Mathematical area
Here the whole environment around the child prepares him for the foundations of mathematical knowledge: ordinal arithmetic, addition and subtraction, multiplication and division. Here you can find volume of geometric shapes, rough figures, various counting material.
5) Area of natural Sciences
In this zone, the child should have the opportunity to get a first idea about the world and science. Fundamentals of botany, Zoology, anatomy, geography presented here in the form of a game. Here you can find a wooden maps, inserts in the form of various tree leaves, models and flashcards with vegetables and fruit, sets, toy animals, collection of minerals, models of the volcano and the earth’s crust.
How are classes?
In Montessori, there are no traditional classes and lessons. Also there special places where they will go. There is only light portable high chairs and tables, and mats to practice on the floor.
The mentor is not an important figure and almost does not interfere in the employment of children, unless they ask for help. His task is to watch from the sidelines. What to do when and where the child chooses and decides solely on himself. All children have free access to everything that is in the Montessori group. They don’t have the extra time to seek help.
But, of course, no anarchy in the Montessori group is not and cannot be. In all likelihood permissiveness, there are strict rules and regulations, which must comply with strictly.
One such rule is to bring an order. After the child is finished to do with some sort of benefits, it needs to clean up — sweep up spilled, wipe spilled, to collect the scattered and be sure to put everything in its place. It teaches the child to sequence, organization and discipline.
Another point — all manuals and materials are available in the group only one copy. Therefore, if the desired benefit is taken, you will have to wait their turn. It also teaches kids to be patient and order.
The crucial feature is that the Montessori method is completely absent negative assessment of the actions of the child (critics, comments, indicating the error) and there is no competition between the children.
The flip side of the coin
As around any bright phenomenon, the controversy surrounding Montessori programs do not cease. What are the arguments of the critics of this method?
The main disadvantage is the complete disregard for the creative activity of the child, the lack of role-playing games, the opportunity to dream up. Indeed, Maria Montessori had a rather radical views in this area. She believed tales are harmful to children, distracting from the natural knowledge of the world. Therefore, the whole emphasis of the system is the development of logical thinking and analytical abilities.
Also, many psychologists and educators pay attention to some artificial environment that is created in the group. Developing environment, in which placed the child in the classroom, forms a kind of microcosm, saturated objects. In real life, the child sees a different picture and it knocks him off.
And finally, do not forget that this technique does not fit into the traditional common school standard. A child who is preschool age, and accustomed to, that can do only what you want and move freely while hardly happy about such a school as desks, lessons, and strict discipline. And this too should be considered.